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The word "Caledonian" is used by the French and others who have settled in the islands.

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The term "Kanak" Mature women in New Caledonia used to designate native residents of this South Pacific archipelago and their culture. The Kanak culture developed in this South Pacific archipelago over a period of three thousand years.

Today, France governs New Caledonia but has not developed a national culture. The Kanak claim for independence is upheld by a culture thought of as national by the indigenous population.

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Location and Geography. Kanaks have settled Ndw all the islands officially indicated by France as New Caledonia and Dependencies. The archipelago includes the principal island, Grande Terre, Belep Island to the north, and Pines Island to the south.

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It is bordered on the east by the Loyalty Islands, consisting of three coral atolls Mare, Lifou, and Ouvea. Grande Terre, which is miles kilometers long and at the widest point extends for 30 miles 50 kilometersis divided by mountains averaging 2, feet meters in height. A coral reef approximately a mile from the coast Mature women in New Caledonia the island Mature women in New Caledonia a shallow lagoon. Descending from the mountain chain, numerous rivers have created wide, green valleys with steep slopes.

On the drier west coast great plains are separated by several large rivers. With rich soil limited to waterway Glenford NY sex dating, the Kanaks developed a system of slash-and-burn agriculture, which over centuries reduced the primary forest surface, shrunk marshes, and favored the extension of herbaceous savannah.

Dense forest covering the Loyalty Islands has provided natural compost for agriculture.

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The Kanaks occupy the Loyalty Islands entirely. Those on Grande Terre live on the northern half of the island in territories demarcated in the nineteenth century as "indigent reserves. Inthere wereinhabitants, up fromin Kanaks number 86, or 44 percent of the population; Europeans, 34 percent; Polynesians Wallisians and Tahitians12 percent; and Asians principally Indonesians and Vietnamese4 percent. Find Osceola population is young; 47 percent of Kanaks are less than twenty years old, but that number falls Mature women in New Caledonia 31 percent among Europeans.

Linguistic Affiliation. French, the official language, is spoken by most residents; Indonesian, Vietnamese, Tahitian, Wallisian, and Mature women in New Caledonia are among the twenty-eight languages spoken by Kanaks.

Apart from the population of French origin, all the inhabitants are at least bilingual. Command of the French language varies Caledonka the academic and social status of individuals.

Languages spoken by Kanaks, which are classified as Austronesian, belong to the linguistic family spoken by the Oceanians who progressively peopled Mature women in New Caledonia Pacific islands over ten centuries. Contact with the Anglo-Saxon navigators and traders who reached the archipelago in the nineteenth century led to the formation of a pidgin English, Bichelamar, Milf offers free sex in Contagem disappeared when French was established.

For two decades Kanaks requested that their languages Calefonia recognized and taught. Four of those languages now can be studied to earn a Bachelor's degree, and in the French state authorized the study of regional languages in elementary schools. French, whose use has been protested by Kanak Csledonia, is Mature women in New Caledonia in politics; vernacular languages are reserved for private life.

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New Caledonia. The flag Kanaky, a yellow solar disk with a hut ridgepole set against three bands of color—green vegetationred the people's bloodand blue sea and sky —signifies the desire for independence.

The flag is tolerated by the administration, which recognizes the French flag. Since NovemberCaledonians have been asked to seek symbols of a "new citizenship" with which Mature women in New Caledonia the communities can identify. The shared national reference is the land: Emergence of the Nation. For the population of French origin, "New Caledonia is France. Before colonization by the French inlinguistic and territorial divisions separated Melanesian groups.

Social and racial discrimination practiced by Mature women in New Caledonia commingled all Pacific blacks and then only those of New Caledonia under the term "Kanak" kanaka means "human being" in Hawaiian.

Mature women in New Caledonia In the s, local nationalist movements took up this term as a symbol of the colonized people's unity. National Identity. Common markers of national identity among the Kanak Caledknia the cultivation of yams and taros, a hierarchy that differentiates high-ranking persons masters of the soil and chiefs from lower status persons, kinship relations, the practice of nonmercantile ceremonial exchanges between clans and chieftainships for marriages and funerals, and belief in ancestors' presence among the living.

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Ethnic Relations. The introduction into the islands of colonized nation—states, borders drawn between archipelagos, and objections to "indigent" travel through boat destruction broke ancient bonds. However, over thirty years, independence in a number of Pacific Caledoniia has encouraged Oceanians to resume contact.

The Mature women in New Caledonia peoples of Oceania have developed an ideology of a "Pacific way" that acknowledges a common culture that overcomes geographic and political divisions.

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Kanaks and other ethnic Ladies looking nsa FL Orlando 32837 form withdrawn communities that maintain functional connections economic, educational, and administrative. The social universe is split in two: This division led Mature women in New Caledonia violent conflict during the period of — Noumea, the capital created by early French colonists, is the only large city.

Kanak cultural foundations are rural, and even in cities demands for "custom" are essential, although Kanaks born in Noumea are slowly building an urban culture. Over the last twenty years, wooden colonial houses with verandas and gardens in Noumea have disappeared, replaced by styleless buildings. Kanaks have Mwture a form of architecture Nea round Mature women in New Caledonia of wood and straw pitched against a central pole found in the Loyalty Islands; the nationalist movement has revived traditional construction on Grande Terre.

The most noteworthy local administration building is the Tjibaou Cultural Center in Noumea. The architect, although influenced by traditional Kanak houses, used modern construction techniques.

For Kanaks space is divided between premises reserved for important men and other residences placed closer to the women and children. This arrangement is still used during gatherings, but no official spatial discrimination exists between communities. Kanaks avoid being alone in empty spaces.

Food in Daily Life. Kanaks traditionally eat yams, taros, bananas, and sweet potatoes, which until recently accounted for the Mature women in New Caledonia of their diet. A decline in Woman looking for sex Mount Pleasant South Carolina, access to wage-earning jobs, the installation of electricity in villages, and travel to Noumea have altered eating habits.

Rice has tended to replace yams and taro, and frozen food, beef, and mutton substitute for wild pork, deer, fish, and bats. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Sea cow, turtle, and fish remain ceremonial dishes, along with bougna, a dish of steamed yams and meat cooked under hot stones. Introduced by Europeans, beer Mature women in New Caledonia whiskey are the inevitable drinks at festivities and on weekends.

Ne Basic Economy. The economy is founded on nickel mining and import trade. Financial transfers that account for up to 50 percent of the budget are received from France; local production agriculture, animal breeding, and fishing accounts for 3 percent of the gross domestic product.

A Mature women in New Caledonia coffee industry and subsistence farming counterbalance the poverty of the land reserves. The average income of Kanaks is seven times lower than that of Europeans. Land Tenure and Property. Clan and lineage systems are patrilineal and form the basis of Kanak social units for private land ownership.

Families that belong to these inclusive entities attain land. If a family has Cxledonia descendant, property goes back to the lineage and clan and is redistributed to one of its members.

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French law recognizes only collective property Mature women in New Caledonia Kanak land reserves. To attain individual private property, Kanaks must buy land or real estate outside the reserves. Commercial Activities. Most food ij come from Australia, New Zealand, and France. Public Mature Tifton nudes health, schooling, justice, and administration are managed by the French.

Major Industries. Nickel, the principal raw material, is sent semirefined to France. No manufactured object is made Caledonnia in the archipelago. Division of Labor.

Mining industry labor power is supplied mainly by Wallisians and Kanaks. Commercial Man fishing from a rock ledge; fish is a national ceremonial food. Training and management are mainly in the hands of Czledonia. Classes and Castes.

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Through the nickel industry, New Caledonia formed a aomen class that included people from all ethnic groups. Mature women in New Caledonia farmers settled on colonized lands in Noumea, forming a white bourgeoisie with a high standard of living.

At the bottom of the social scale, Indonesians farm workers and Kanaks on reserves struggled with poverty.

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Today, the working class has increased as the nickel industry and trade have developed. The arrival of Calrdonia qualified French people Lonely moms ready hook up dating enlarged the middle and upper classes. Kanaks have difficulty finding work.

The government consists of an authority Mature women in New Caledonia the French state, an elected territorial assembly, im an executive council composed of eleven ministers. Leadership and Political Officials. Members of the government are expected to adopt a collegial form of administration in the interests of all Caledonians, while political confrontations are limited to the territorial assembly. Elected members of the independence parties minority and anti-independence parties majority sit in these two political structures.

Apart from these official mechanisms, Kanaks participate in other forms of political life. In this "customary" Caleeonia, which is organized around chiefdoms recognized in the nineteenth Mature women in New Caledonia by the French administration, chiefs are named by notables and the state. Kanak independents in electoral proceedings municipalities, provinces, and the territorial assembly, etc.