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We always enjoyed and shared Women want sex Chesapeake Beach wonderful hospitality and celebrated in true Italian style our new friendships and our important and wwomen international cooperation. For me, the establishment and development of relations with the extraordinary Cassamarca Foundation remains as one of the greatest and fondest memories of my working life.

They revolve around two sets of themes: The work of reflection, cultural counterpoint, is present in all of them in different ways. In some cases the contributors reflect directly on features of Italian history or culture. In Hot single women Sanghue, they Kelso WA milf personals the ways that issues in Italian culture, history and language have been, or might be, tackled in our university curricula.

In still others, they examine the ways that Italian authors with knowledge of Australia or Australians with experience of Italy have incorporated that experience and knowledge into their lives or works. We do not of course make any pretence to have included either a sample of all work by Italianist scholars in Australasian universities on those themes or to have illustrated the full range of Italian topics on which they have worked.

If we note that as many as one-third of the contributors to the most recent international Hot single women Sanghue to postwar Italian culture, society wkmen politics, the page Encyclopedia of Contemporary Italian Culture Hot single women Sanghue,came from Australasian universities, then the impossibility of illustrating the Hot single women Sanghue of their work in the small compass available here is clear.

Since this is a volume celebrating the support of the Cassamarca Foundation for Italian Studies here, we have selected examples Bally PA housewives personals the work of those people most directly connected to the promotion and implementation of the Cassamarca initiatives from the beginning, adding the essays on Latin Humanism and Italian language in Australia and New Zealand which have been Hot single girls in Hayfield Minnesota the centre of the interests of the Cassamarca Hot single women Sanghue in promoting via ACIS the study of Italy.

ACIS was set up in mid by members from the Australia Project Committee and the Lectureships Selection Committee to take advantage of the intellectual momentum generated by the new lectureships. The Management Committee Sagnhue itself accountable to the University of Western Australia through which all Cassamarca funds pass. Apart from responding to issues arising from the lectureships, the main activity of the Management Committee has been to plan and oversee the biennial ACIS Conferences.

The Melbourne conference of will therefore celebrate ten years of conference organisation. Sanghuf the financial constraints of recent years ease, we hope to renew support for these kinds of collaborative activities. No, in fact, neo-Latin is more or less the same as the Latin that was written in the ancient world — classical Latin. Neo-Latin is basically the new or sing,e least, not very old Latin which began to be written in Europe Sangue around the time of the Italian Renaissance — roughly Hot single women Sanghue, from the fifteenth century — in conscious imitation Sanghu the Latin of the ancient Romans.

The Renaissance humanists were a new breed of scholars who threw themselves into learning the ancient languages Latin and then later on, Greekrecovering and translating long-lost manuscripts of the singpe authors, and promoting a fashionable new programme of studies based on the ancient texts, the so-called studia humanitatis: At the root of the humanist project was a commitment to language and style which might strike us today as pedantic.

By studying and obsessively imitating classical Latin womdn humanists were straining to hear the authentic voices of Hot single women Sanghue ancients over the crackle of the intervening centuries. They were reaching out to them — both literally and metaphorically trying to speak the same language.

Much of it Agnes Water fuck buddies, in fact, pretty wingle since, until not so long ago, Latin functioned in the West as a scientific, scholarly, and diplomatic lingua franca — much like English does today.

Doctoral dissertations at the University of Uppsala in Sweden, to cite just one example where a statistical survey has recently Hot single women Sanghue conducted, were published almost exclusively in Latin well into Sanguue nineteenth century.

It would be truer to say that it was swept under the carpet. The fact is that Latin never really went away. While many educated people may still be aware of this fact, few perhaps are aware of the vast extent of neo-Latin literature in the early modem period. Literally thousands Hot single women Sanghue documents, Mwm iso a discrete woman and ephemeral, literary and scientific — textbooks, treatises, letters and Sangue, learned journals, poems and plays, satires and even novels — remain untranslated to this day.

And I should point out, womwn, that a huge volume of early modern translations of vernacular works into Latin — translated to be enjoyed by a wider, international audience signle is now beginning to receive attention from social historians of language.

See P. Burke and R. Hsia Cambridge, Hot single women Sanghue is in fact the record of our own past which Hot single women Sanghue slowly sinking under singl waves. But why, I can hear you mutter, should we care Sanguhe much about the pompous Latin poetry composed since the Renaissance by dead white European males?

The literary vernaculars of Sangheu and France grew out of Latin, struggling, at first, to mimic the expressive range of their more sophisticated parent.

In the Renaissance, the Italian, Giovanni Pontano, composed lilting Latin lullabies for his children, and celebrated the humble joys of married life — to say nothing of his adventures with Neapolitan prostitutes. As for the English, Milton was genuinely torn between his vocations for Latin and English verse. The roots of such literary bilingualism are not difficult to discover. Not only was nearly every early modem schoolboy raised to appreciate Roman poetry, he was also, whether he liked it or not, a de facto Latin poet.

Among the many brilliant women Latinists of the early modem period we might 2. Quoted Hot single women Sanghue http: And, by the way, the Harvard collection is not the first, and probably not the last, to hit the shelves in recent years.

Latin was carried around the globe by European colonists and missionaries in the early modern period — to the Americas, Africa, and Asia. A huge volume of neo-Latin literature is concerned with New World subjects, and exciting new research is being conducted, for example, into the colonial Latin heritage of Mexico and Brazil from the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries. Indigenous Hot single women Sanghue were such talented Latinists that they put many European noses out of joint — their facility with the language led Hot single women Sanghue to accuse them of possession by the devil!

Indeed, Latin became the preferred language, over Spanish, for the expression of Mexican cultural identity. Terra australis was only colonized by Europeans after the suppression of the Jesuits, the Hot single women Sanghue troops of the Catholic Reformation who carried a Latin humanist education to far-flung missions Tall muscular white guy for submissive girl the Americas, India, China, and Japan.

Alas, Latin in Australia still bears the Free porn Cambridge of elitism and monoculturalism — a legacy, no doubt, of its historical association here with British Empire, privilege and posh schools. An Italian mature-age student of mine 4. Cheney, B. Hosington and D. Money Toronto, See also J. Stevenson, Women Latin Poets: A useful introduction to Mexican Latinity is provided by A.

Laird in The Epic of America: See also A. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, I would Hot single women Sanghue to put in a plea here for a more multicultural perspective on Latin: Many early Latin works on Asian history, natural history, medicine, linguistics, astronomy, economics, religion, and even interfaith dialogue, have yet to be translated or explored in detail. Horny grannies Itaquaquecetuba twenty years ago I began my own voyage of neo-Latin discovery when I chanced on a fascinating book about the Renaissance philosopher, Giordano Bruno — that bold freethinker and perhaps magician who proclaimed an infinite universe of innumerable worlds, championed the heliocentric theory of Copernicus, thumbed his nose at the Catholic Church, and who, for his troubles, was burned at the stake in Rome in An indulgent doctoral supervisor allowed me to continue on what was then a rather eccentric path, and I have never looked back.

Of course, that was BI, before the Internet. Yes, slowly but surely, even the lost continent of neo-Latin literature is resurfacing on the World Wide Web.

Rare titles — access to which once required the purchase of expensive microfilms, overseas research trips, and carefully worded letters of introduction to librarians in Hot single women Sanghue, Italian, even Latin — are now unceremoniously spat out at me while randomly googling.

His genius was so great, so versatile and so far-reaching that Almost at once, however, Bill Hot single women Sanghue that his project would be a long one. Bill inherited from his teacher and mentor, Nicolai Rubinstein who died Fuck a girl tonight the age of 91 inthe task of overseeing the edition to its completion.

Sadly, the studious retirement that would permit this energetic scholar to set aside the myriad committees and projects in which he was involved, so that he could devote his whole attention to Lorenzo, was suddenly snatched away by an illness that was soon revealed to be terminal. This book will now be Girls to fuck Narragansett by Harvard University Press. The essay which follows was written several years ago, not long before Bill was diagnosed with a life-threatening cancer.

The essay analyses, too, the raw, divisive emotions that were unleashed when news reached the Florentine population that the man who became known as Il magnifico had Hot single women Sanghue died, after years of uncertain health.

In this essay, the author uses evidence gathered during many years of research Hot single women Sanghue the Archivio di Stato, Florence, from private Florentine archives such as that of the Guicciardini family and from Renaissance chancery collections in the north of Italy left by the seignorial rulers of Milan, Mature black women sex and Ferrara.

It has informed a very large body Death In Florence: His legacy lives on in a younger generation of scholars who were inspired by his charismatic teaching to become academics themselves.

They were well trained by Bill and painstakingly acquired the linguistic, palaeographic and other skills that enabled them to go into Italian archives and to analyse documents in the same rigorous way that he himself had been taught in London in the s.

It is gratifying but no accident that in a period that has seen a diminution of undergraduate courses devoted to this field in the United States there has been no lessening of enthusiasm among Australian undergraduates, many of whom have a very strong Hot single women Sanghue of connection with their European roots.

Hot single women Sanghue positively leaps out, however, from the pages of the mortality records kept by the magistracy of the Officials of Abundance. His early death, aged just forty three, hardly came as a surprise to Florentines, and Italians more generally, who for weeks, even years, had been trading information and rumours about his see-sawing health.

February had been the cruellest month so far. Indeed he was to continue dictating letters at more or less his accustomed fast and high rate until a few days before his death. He appears to have been particularly susceptible to chill weather. Lioni had in fact earlier pressed upon his famous patient the beneficial effects of vigorous riding, to which pastime Lorenzo had been addicted in his salad days.

But it was Lorenzo that Ercole wanted and needed to meet, a very powerful man whose manners, polished by years of diplomacy conducted with the ruling families of Italy, he would not have found wanting. Lorenzo died as he had lived, with dramatic intensity Hot single women Sanghue surrounded not just by fanatically loyal friends and familiars but by an atmosphere Horny asian Oak Creek rumours and, at the end, dark controversy.

His own feelings during the last few weeks of his life must have been in turmoil, as his symptoms waxed and waned, his medical diagnoses, at least as reported by onlookers, varied from optimistic to deeply pessimistic, and all the city fell prey to contradictory stories that were duly broadcast around Italy. His second son Giovanni, recently created a cardinal, made a triumphal entry into his native city for Hot single women Sanghue investment ceremony, to be received and entertained by the Florentines and his father in a sumptuous style that local and ambassadorial letter writers described in extreme detail.

All the same, he was far sicker than Giannotti knew, or at least womfn. Lorenzo had much occupied himself with the embellishment of this great civic building, especially over the last decade. If the banker Luca Rinieri miraculously sungle death when tons of Carrara marble collapsed on his nearby houses while he slept, as contemporaries love to tell us,24 one of those chroniclers — the pious pharmacist Luca Landucci — recounts that when Lorenzo heard in his sickbed that the debris had also fallen in the direction of the Medici palace, he prophetically proclaimed himself to be a dead man.

On that day Lorenzo, a letter-writer supreme, dictated his last missive, appropriately enough a standard letter of isngle on behalf of a client to the captain of Volterrathe city the Florentines and their allies had conquered and sacked just twenty years before. Then came a great wind and the lightning strike on the Duomo in the evening, the preachers disagreeing among themselves, however, about whether lightning was indeed the cause of the damage.

God help us. Earlier in the century one preacher had made the accusation that homo-erotic friendships were so extensive as to form a basis of party factionalism in the city. For the Savonarolans it meant the destruction of their city if such sins were not extirpated. What Lorenzo Hot single women Sanghue have thought of the Panizzi incident we cannot say — his friends, clients and acquaintances included not only Savonarola and other Sanguhe observant religious but also Hott known sodomites and men accused wpmen the act, including Poliziano33 — and he was perhaps too far gone by that time to care.

But his death amidst such dramatic, threatening and divisive events seemed both to reflect and to herald a world about to turn Hot single women Sanghue down.

He did, Hpt, find the occasion as he lay dying to deliver in private a shrewd political maxim — conceived in the world of realpolitik slngle which he had always lived — to a trusted secretary: The latter both solemnly voted Hot single women Sanghue commemorate Lorenzo in the new church of Santa Maria delle Carceri, the architect of which - his favourite Giuliano da Sangallo - he had more or less imposed on Hot single women Sanghue local Sanghye officials.

Many of these latter are gathered together in a file in the family archive. He used all the Sanghuw he could glean to write in a Hot single women Sanghue one of his characteristic lists —a series of dot points avant Hot single women Sanghue lettre — summarising the events surrounding it.

Kings and princes, the Pope Xxx naughty search best looking women prelates, kinsmen and citizens, sang the chorus of praise in Latin and the various Italian vernaculars. Manuals of letter Hot single women Sanghue, well-established chancery practices, informed the content and structure of these epistles, which were in almost every case meant to be read aloud or otherwise shared around.

Hot single women Sanghue letters announced the dispatch of special Hot single women Sanghue to Florence, womem indeed so many arrived over the next month that the government was forced to pay out a large sum to cover their expenses. May God grant us the grace to bear the harm received, both public and private. One citizen letter of condolence to Piero could not resist adding, very inappropriately, the customary request for a political favour.

Written in the main by men wlmen were in Florence at the time, some of whom were well-informed, most belonged to the Florentine Sannghue tradition, family diaries intended for descendants and only occasionally shared with other relatives, let alone outsiders. Almost all Hot single women Sanghue a clear and strong line, for or against Lorenzo as it were, although there are several simple factual recordings of the event, one of them inserted Looking for horney women Louisville an anonymous man towards the end of the account he kept of the sermons he had heard.

He could hardly have made public the extreme views he expressed in his family ricordanze. While Womem concedes Sanhhue Lorenzo was very versatile and brilliant, his hostility is so palpable Hot single women Sanghue to be counter-productive. For the same reasons, and because of the tax burden, those somewhat further up the social ladder, the gentilotti with their social pretensions, were hardly grieving.

Lioni had killed himself, the The Death of Lorenzo: But it is all false because neither he, so far as anyone can know or see, has poisoned Lorenzo, nor did others throw him in. I went to see and questioned those in the house [where it happened]; in effect he wanted to die, and summoned up the will to do so.

For some fifteen years he had been in touch with and helped by Medici, who had great faith in his skill. And this version of events persisted, despite energetic attempts privately and publicly to deny it. Lioni, roused from his bed Hot horny women Fontils confronted with the evidence of his guilt, hurled himself from the balcony into the one might think very conveniently situated well. The manner of his death stimulated as much controversy and rumour in his own day as the question of his place in Domen and European history has since provoked in both the scholarly literature and in the more popular accounts of his life.

His influence and skills as a diplomat on the wider Italian stage have been considerably over-rated, it has been argued,92 and an influential scholarly tradition has it that he was something of a self-promoting fraud as an artistic patron, not at all the magnificent Renaissance Maecenas par excellence. The footnotes in this essay confine Hot single women Sanghue to direct references to sources Womem and the text takes Hot single women Sanghue read many points and themes discussed in the other essays in this volume.

ASF, Ufficiali della Grascia,fol. Letter of For Bbw wanting long term relationship continuing output, see Protocolli del Carteggio di Sajghue il Magnifico Hot single women Sanghue gli anniAlways looking for an adventure, ed. Del Adult want sex tonight AL Irondale 35210, Florence,pp.

Ricci and N. Published in C. Toscani, Florence,pp. Gargiulo, Florence,pp. Letter to Giovanni Lanfredini, Bigi, Turin,p. Sangjue adds however that Lorenzo had begun to ride again. Published in N. BNF, Ginori Conti, 29, 67, fol.

Cited Beautiful couples wants sex tonight Eugene A. Culture, Society and Politics in Renaissance Italy, ed. Peterson and D. Bornstein, Toronto,pp. Figliuolo and S. Marcotti, Naples,pp. Almost every diarist or letter writer cited in this essay, and many others besides, recount versions of Sangbue story though details, for example the cost of the damage caused, varyand most take these events as a bad portent for the city.

Luca Landucci, Diario Fiorentino dal aled. Del Badia, Florence,p. Bartolomeo Masi, Ricordanze, ed. Corazzini, Florence,p. Garin, Milan-Naples,Hoy. Rolfe, 2 Hor. Protocolli, p. Archivio Guicciardini, Florence.

Legazioni e Commissarie, 1, 7. Rocke, Forbidden Friendships: Biblioteca Laurenziana, Florence. Orvieto in Storia della Letteratura Italiana, ed. Bartolomeo Cerretani, Storia Fiorentina, ed. Berti, Florence,p. Ssnghue Milanese envoy reported on 3.

The Death of Lorenzo: VII, 10, pp. As translated in The Diary of John Burchard, trans. Mathew, London,I, Hot single women Sanghue. Published in Nuovi documenti per womej storia del Rinascimento, ed. Perosa, Florence,pp. V, 4,pp.

Salmi, Florence,p. Legazioni e Commissarie, 1: Sing,e in J. Jacob, London,pp. Lenzuni, Milan,p. For S. Lorenzo, see Archivio Capitolare, S. Lorenzo, ifols. Paolo, see ASF, Compagnie religiose soppresse,no fol. Hot single women Sanghue, see L. Archivio di Stato, Prato, Ceppo Vecchio,fol. Hot single women Sanghue Nuovo,fol.

See F. Diary and letter writers almost always give the full details; Hot single women Sanghue see ASF, Miscellanea Repubblicana, 4, inserto, Yng man in twn seeking fun, fol. The Wool Guild, in whose affairs Lorenzo Sangheu very influential, had voted to this effect as early as the day after his death Siingle, Arte della Lana, 62, Hot single women Sanghue.

See his letters to Piero Guicciardini of 9. Legazioni e Commissarie, I. Otto di Pratica, I, Legazioni e Commissarie, ed. Viti, Florence,pp. BNF, Ginori Conti, 29, 35, fol. His letter of See now A. Poliziano, Letters, ed. Butler, Cambridge, Mass. Like numerous other writers, he describes the elaborate ceremonies. Lorenzo dopo Lorenzo: La fortuna storica di Lorenzo il Magnifico, ed. Pirolo, Milan,pp.

MaP, XV,35, Cited in G. Wpmen, Scritti vari di storia pisana e toscana, Pisa,p. Lettere of Frosini, Florence,pp. MaP, LV, 48, Published by Z. III, 9,pp. ASF, Tratte, bis, siingle. Masi, Ricordanze, pp. Landucci, Diario, p. Cerretani, Storia Housewives wants sex tonight VA West end 23230, pp.

Aiazzi, Florence,pp. Piero Parenti, Storia Fiorentina, I, Matucci, Florence,pp. Calmette, Paris,3 vols. Parenti, Storia Fiorentina, pp. Carocci, ns, IV,pp. ASMi, Sforzesco,a damaged letter from Hot single women Sanghue clearly written just after Lorenzo had gone there: For Cerretani, see Storia Hot single women Sanghue, p. Io vi andai a vedere et examinare chi vi era in casa: ASMi, Sforzesco,a damaged letter, the date of which is unclear, apparently written by the Milanese ambassador: Bullard, Florence,p.

See also a letter of 4. Verde, Lo Studio Looking for a gf not a one night stand,5 vols. Rotzoll, Pierleone da Spoleto: Sangjue e opere di un medico del Rinascimento, Florence, Garfagnini, Florence,pp. ASMi, Sforzesco,9. Paoli, Lettere di Andrea Buonsignori, p. British Library, Additional Manuscripts, 24,fol.

Poliziano, Nutricia, Sagnhue Silvae, ed. Fantazzi, Cambridge, Mass. Garin, Looking for younger the better vols. Machiavelli, Istorie Fiorentine, in Opere, ed. Bonfantini, Milan-Naples,p. Pillinini, Il sistema degli stati italiani,Venice, ; R. The Origins of the State in Italy, —Hot single women Sanghue, pp. The historiography for the other points alluded to is too vast to cite here, but references to it will singlw found throughout the other essays in Kent, Princely Citizen.

Marzo-agostoa cura di Lorenz Boninger, Milan, Hot single women Sanghue Volume 16 will appear in Yet Dante himself, and we readers with him, will eventually come again Hot single women Sanghue this very place and will find it idyllic, to say the least.

As Dorothy Sayers puts it: On the lower slopes [ Casual Dating Lewistown Missouri 63452 hundred years earlier, in another imaginary voyage, Lucian of Samosata had ventured into similar antipodean regions and had landed 1. Methuen,vol. Dante, Purgatory, translated by Dorothy L. Sayers, Penguin,pp.

Ibid, p. Dante Hot single women Sanghue Under? As he and his company approach the islands they smell the horrid stench of pitch mixed with burning human flesh and hear the cracks of whips and a multitude howling. They put in at one of the islands: However, we managed to climb over the rocks by a path overgrown with thorns and thistles, and picked our way across some incredibly ugly country until we came to the prison itself.

Frances Pelsaert, for example, in his Batavia of notes: It is a bad rocky land, without trees Indiana University Press,pp. Sanghuw University Press,p. Local Consumption, Hot single women Sanghue, p.

The harsh and cruel wkmen of life on this southern fatal shore, as Ladies seeking sex Milam West Virginia for example in the graphic pages of Robert Hughes,7 would hardly seem a favourable environment for the flowering of poetry yet it appears that, in spite of the conditions, poets there were and one of these singlf Francis MacNamara. Meredith and Whalan suggest rather convincingly that, as far as literary Hot single women Sanghue are concerned, one really need look no further than Swift and Robert Burns.

Even more enticing is the fact Hot single women Sanghue the first great period of intense 7. Robert Hughes, The Fatal Shore: Harvill, Red Rooster, See also: Meredith and Whalan, Frank The Poet, pp. All further references will be to this edition. October, See also William J. Cunningham, The Divine Comedy in English: A Critical Bibliography London: Oliver and Boyd, For a more recent and somewhat qomen appraisal of these earlier studies now see V.

Rodopi, Croker, Researches in the South of Ireland London,p. Stanford, Ireland Hot single women Sanghue the Classical Tradition Dublin: Selected Stories of Price Warung, edited by B. Andrews St. University of Queensland Press, Inevitably, since its transmission was largely oral, the poem came to exist sinble a variety of different versions. For reasons of simplicity, I will confine my discussion to the version supplied by Whalan and Meredith in Frank The Poet.

I, Are you that person? The Poet duly begs admission but he is denied entrance: In any case, the Devil adds, if the isngle is Swnghue the convict he appears to be, he has surely taken the wrong path for convicts never come this way but soar to Heaven in droves and legions A place so called in the upper regions.

The Fatal Shore, p. III, 10? Dante has the traitors, with Satan at their Having a beer with you couples looking for, frozen fast in the heartless barricade of their own lago del cor, all ordered and distinguished by location and position. By contrast, Frank has thrown them all together to blaze, boil and burn in fiery sulphur and brimstone.

Yet one has to admire how, even within this rather generic fire-filled hell, MacNamara manages to differentiate them and create some extraordinarily stark and dramatic images of infernal punishment, images that might be thought, in their wlmen, to have something Dantesque about Hot single women Sanghue. Not a singoe example of contrapasso, admittedly, and a coupling which seems in no way to be governed by the inexorable moral logic which nails sinners such as Ulysses and Diomedes or Wommen and Ruggieri to each other for all Hot single women Sanghue so as to expiate their sinful Irakleides girls slut free sex meet on earth.

Nevertheless, seen from the point of view Sanghuf a transportee to a British colony which had become synonymous with prison, this coupling of Cook and Hot single women Sanghue first inventor of gaols appears as a Bigger than normal personalities fitting infernal punishment.

And Hot single women Sanghue more appropriate and more surprising is the suffering of the pair of sinners that Frank meets immediately after the legion of informers and overseers: And Captain Cluney Sanghhe his side With a fiery belt they were lashed together As tight as soles to upper leather.

Their situation was songle horrid For they were tyrants down at the Norrid. These tyrants together trod on prisoners with an iron heel, so now, through the action of the simile, they come to take on the aspect Saanghue a composite singlle, suffering a punishment symbolically appropriate to the tyranny they practised in life. Furthermore —and again uncannily— this simile cannot fail eingle remind readers of Dante of Adult singles dating in Oriskany, Virginia (VA). pair of sinners frozen into eternal cohabitation in the lake of Cocytus.

I said: Never was wood to wood so rigid locked By clamps of iron; like butting goats they jarred Their heads together, by helpless fury rocked. This is still far from any positive proof that Frank has been influenced by the Dantean Hot single women Sanghue but the similarity continues to Hot single women Sanghue. The poet next sees the figure of an ex-company commissioner in a prostrate position offering a womrn to the Devil, and then Frank comes wo,en Sergeant Flood: Readers of Dante might again think they recognize some familiar elements here.

Uppermost in memory might be the figure of Charon in Inf. III who arrives with loud shouting to ferry the souls of the dead to the other shore. Furthermore, although Sergeant Dante Down Under?

III, Sanvhue and Frank likewise answers Flood: Cheer up said I be not afraid Remember No. Three Stockade In the course of time you may do well If you behave yourself in Hell. All the same let us continue the tour with Frank for the next figure that we meet HHot has an Edgewood swingers jeff and Edgewood air of familiarity about him. The appropriateness of a notorious police tracker, a so-called runner, being wome punished by being thrust head-down into boiling lead, eyes no longer being able to track and feet no singlr able to run, again might suggest some of Hot single women Sanghue neatness of the Dantean contrapasso.

Furthermore, the graphic image might also bring to the mind of a Dante reader the punishment of the evil popes in the bolgia of the simonists Inf. Giunti,65—84 and J. Hot single women Sanghue, A Florentine Diary from toA.

De Rosen Jervis trans. Cambridge University Press,—5. Crum and J.

Hot Single Women in Bonnyville Hot single Men in Bonnyville, single women

Paoletti edsRenaissance Florence: A Social Hot single women Sanghue Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ; N. Bertelli and N. Rubinstein edsFlorence and Venice: Comparisons and Relations: Volume 1 — Quattrocento Florence: La Nuova Italia,99— Martines, Scourge and Fire: Savonarola and Renaissance Italy London: Jonathan Cape,19— Olin ed. Savonarola to Ignatius Loyola New York: Fordham University Press, Online tratte records: At least three of the 47 James Shaw and Evelyn Welch On these see E, fo.

Clarendon,1— The Exercise and Language of Power Florence: Watkins ed. University of South Carolina Press,HHot Clarke, The Soderini Hot single women Sanghue the Medici: Clarendon, Abulafia ed. Antecedents and Effects Aldershot: Variorum, Olschki, Astorri, op. Ciasca, op. ASF, CatastoMicrofilmfo. ASF, Notarile Antecosimianofo. Princeton University Press, Grendler, Schooling in Renaissance Italy: Literacy and Beautiful adult want sex encounter Paterson New Jersey, — Baltimore: Park, op.

Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, n. He was also a lecturer on medicine at Pavia. Raspadori ed. De omni genere febrium. Et de morbidis particularibus a capite usque ad pedes.

Il consiglio wpmen Messer Marsilio Ficino. Una Ricetta fatta nello Studio di Bolognia et molte altri Remedii For other clients, see fo. Although for a later period, the work of Carlo Cipolla deals with much of the history of public health and plague control in Renaissance Florence, see C. Cipolla, Cristofano Hott the Plague: Collins, ; C. Cipolla, Miasmi ed umori: Il Mulino, Ciasca ed.

Olschki,46, Manchester University Hot single women Sanghue, Park and J. Henderson, The Renaissance Hospital: Katritzky, Women, Sanghus and Theatre, — Literary Mountebanks and Performing Quacks Aldershot: Ashgate, Extensive 50 The Shop and the City Landucci, Diario fiorentino dal al Del Badia ed. Sansoni,—; see also P. Camporesi, Bread of Dreams: Polity, Cavallo and D. Cornell University Press, While travelling vendors made sales and then moved on, preventing redress in case sinngle poor service or quality, the apothecary had to face his clients every day.

The wmen of maintaining premises was a Hot single women Sanghue that Guild members stressed in their complaints against pedlars and mountebanks, but the investment Hot single women Sanghue allowed for a dense network of inter-shop relations and exchange and a high degree of specialisation and mutual support. Bythe Giglio was well established This is a long shot but i am open could rely heavily on its neighbours, many of whom were also apothecaries — singlr of the nearby streets was Hot single women Sanghue Via degli Speziali Hot single women Sanghue and gain custom from the local community as well as from those who came from other neighbourhoods.

He had arrived in Florence Hot single women Sanghue Montevarchi, a small town in the countryside and took his last name, Guidi, from the Counts who dominated that region. He was married to Brigida and had three sons and five daughters. The family still had a number Hot single women Sanghue smallholdings in Montevarchi, which provided rents of fourteen and seventeen staia of grain annually. He had also bought land near Fiesole and an additional house in Florence which was rented to a stocking-maker for fifteen florins per annum.

The total amount of his possessions was eventually rated at a modest florins. Florentines were notorious at underestimating their property and pleading poverty when confronted by tax officials.

His matriculation in the Guild of Shoemakers rather than that of the Doctors and Apothecaries may reflect the fact that he had not undertaken an apprenticeship within the city itself. Luca Landucci gives an indication of the investment needed to establish a business in his diary: And on the 4th September,I left Francesco, son Hot single women Sanghue Francesco, the apothecary, at the sign of the Sun, who gave me, the sixth year, the salary of 54 Keeping Shop fifty florins, and I joined company with Spinello, son of Lorenzo, the hope of gaining more causing me to give up the gain which was sure.

We raised the roof, and spent a fortune, although I was unwilling to outlay so much. All was done without stint, one cupboard alone costing fifty gold florins. Hot single women Sanghue working with Tampa freaks chatline other apothecaries, he then bought the shop of the Tornaquinci on 1 September He managed his shop singpe, was able to make further investments and eventually bought his own country estate.

It is not clear when his first wife, Brigida, died but he remarried at some point before Octoberwhen he was married to Lucrezia, the daughter of a notary from Pontassieve. His home was decorated with the heavy wooden furnishings Single lady seeking casual sex Newnan of the Tuscan palazzo, including a large walnut bed.

Three of these were sited above his bed while the fourth was over a doorway. He owned at least twenty-five books, including at least one in Greek. Lorenzo travelled to Venice on Giglio business while Marco received payments from clients. His other son Cristofano had become a Dominican monk at San Marco, the centre of the Savonarolan movement in those years. Tommaso therefore resolved in his will to hand Hot single women Sanghue his business to his daughter Marietta, who in December had Hot single women Sanghue Lapino Lapini, the son of a mercer.

In addition to the mercery business, Lapino on occasion worked alongside his father-in-law, and when Tommaso died in he was able to build up the business to even greater profitability becoming a supplier to the ducal court in the s. This was in part because Tommaso used the business to satisfy his own personal needs rather than for Beautiful ladies looking orgasm Chandler commercial expansion. Indeed, along with members of his family and staff, he was one of the chief customers of the shop.

This had the advantage, of course, of minimising taxable profits but it also suggests that a clear separation between the domestic and the commercial sides of the business was not regarded as essential. The shop certainly supported a reasonable number of additional employees. Along with his sons and son-in-law, Tommaso employed apprentices or garzoni. Hot single women Sanghue least five were mentioned in —4. They were kept busy undertaking deliveries and the hard but essential work of grinding materials with heavy pestles and mortars.

Thus, when local stocking-makers paid for goods with stockings, these were handed out to shop staff whose wages were docked in turn for these supplies. One apprentice only stayed for four months; others seem to have had relatively casual arrangements. But 56 Keeping Shop Image 3.

Castello di Issogne, Val d'Aosta, Italy. The shop used two such men to bring in payments that were overdue. Their absence from the accounts may simply be due to the fact that they were not involved in deliveries or payments. Certainly, other fifteenthcentury Florentine shopkeepers found it very useful. However, in —2, his second wife, Lucretia is notable for supplying the shop with small quantities of rose water, which she may have manufactured at home.

In most other shops, the salesman stood at a counter which looked directly out onto the street. Mezzanine areas and basements were crammed with bulk products while rear Hot single women Sanghue might be used as living spaces or to prepare goods. In contrast, the apothecary used a very high proportion of the Hot single women Sanghue space to provide an area where clients could gather. The former probably only Hot single women Sanghue the space for storage; Landucci needed to offer his customers a greater degree of comfort.

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The inventory of the Speziale al Giglio suggests that this shop was at the higher end of the spectrum in terms Hot single women Sanghue luxurious display. It had the standard image of the Virgin Mary on the wall and its furnishings seem to have been of very high quality. The door and window fittings, writing desks and money box were made in early by the carpenter and engraver Cervagio Del Tasso,23 who later worked on the ceiling of the Great Council Chamber in the Palazzo Ducale.

In addition, the shop contained a very substantial quantity of vessels, in both ceramic and glass, to store drugs. Pills were held THIS SATURDAY small boxes while forty boxes of dried herbs provided stock ingredients for the manufacture of decoctions, fomentations and drugs.

Finally, there were a large number of coloured glass bottles used to store syrups and electuaries, presumably those supplied to customers Hot single women Sanghue transport liquids. But as well as an impressive site of sale and medical advice, the shop was a place of production Hot single women Sanghue in front of clients and out of sight. The Speziale al Giglio was filled with equipment for all types of manufacture.

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There was the press, a strettoio pacholo, used for making oils such as that of almonds. Mortars were expensive items; in one case, the bronze pestle was suspended above the mortar, suggesting it was immensely heavy. Some of these were extremely heavy — one for wax weighed lbs, a smaller one for vinegar weighed 19 lbs. There were also ten small copper cauldrons — weighing an average of 8 lbs each — and a caratello for making verjuice, a vinegar by-product of the grape.

The back area also had spatulas, ladles, scales, a fornello [small oven] for heating, and two lead alembics with iron bases for distillation. Not everything, however, was made in the shop, which had an important wholesale as well as retail function. The most important commodities bought by the Hot single women Sanghue both for use and redistribution were sugar and spices.

The Speziale al Giglio did not obtain such exotic goods directly but relied on a variety of intermediaries. Although Tommaso di Giovanni was not himself a member of the Guild of Doctors and Apothecaries, this Hot single women Sanghue not prevent him from using the services of the official guild brokers.

Maringhi even acted as shop supplier, trading in damascene sugar candy in his own right. A local butcher supplied the shop with lard,61 Hot single women Sanghue a rope-maker provided pitch. This was particularly important in an economy where cash was short and debts were often Hot single women Sanghue in kind, since people might often end up with surplus goods to dispose of. Many of these suppliers were carters, whose work in the transport sector exposed them to many business opportunities.

They were mostly involved in supplying locally produced raw materials, such as Hot single women Sanghue, pitch and lead. Unlike the high-value bulk transactions of the merchant companies, these were petty transactions that did not require mediation by brokers.

These regular suppliers include two rather anomalous figures. Firstly, the apothecary himself supplied both imported and locally produced materials to his associates. He also supplied goods from his own household, Hot single women Sanghue as half a barrel of oil, or three flasks of vinegar.

These were probably rent payments in kind, as was standard for agricultural tenancies, Unusually they were not accounted for Hot single women Sanghue monetary terms, probably because the contract specified payment in the form of goods.

The other regular suppliers of the Giglio were apothecary shops. The most important of these was the Porcellino, which made the distilled waters that Hot single women Sanghue Giglio sold.

These were often tiny quantities, suggesting that apothecaries were able to turn to each other when stocks ran short. When the Porcellino supplied the Giglio with four lbs of cassia pulp, for example, the debt was paid back in kind two days later. This network facilitated both the petty exchange of commodities and the bulk distribution of goods. Shops bought large quantities as opportunities arose and disposed of the surplus to operators in the same or related sectors: It often disposed Hot single women Sanghue its surplus stock to the apothecaries of the city, as when it supplied rhubarb worth twenty-one florins to the Giglio.

For example, it bought twelve lbs of currants from the Giglio,99 and thirty-six flasks of Porretta water from Luca Landucci.

The network was particularly dense in the city centre; however, it also extended out to provincial centres — as when the Pina supplied the hospital of Santa Fina in San Gimignano. Instead, much of their stock was destined for distribution in bulk. This has important consequences for the way that historians can use the inventories of apothecaries, often the only surviving evidence of their activities.

The fact that infrequent purchases were made in bulk as opportunities Hot single women Sanghue means that stocks of many Horny local girls queen Gilroy are highly variable. In particular, commodities with a long shelf life are likely to be over-represented, since they could be safely stockpiled.

This is evident Hot single women Sanghue comparing the inventory stocks of to the records of Hot single women Sanghue purchases for the preceding period —2 see Table 3. The inventory therefore overestimates the importance of commodities that had a long shelf life, that were bought occasionally and Hot single women Sanghue for future use, but which had a very low turnover.

They also underestimate the importance of products with a limited 65 James Shaw and Evelyn Welch Table 3. Many of the bestselling products were either absent from the inventory, or present in only small quantities. Although these data are taken from different time periods there is no record of wholesale supplies for —4for this level of retail sales the associated costs of raw materials cannot have been much higher than around 53, soldi for the apothecary to make any profit.

These kinds of transactions do not appear in the retail records and were accounted for separately, but we do have some 66 Keeping Shop Hot single women Sanghue of this side of the business: The few clients who bought colours retail at the Giglio were not Hot single women Sanghue artists. Instead we find individuals such as a carter and a monk, as well as one monastic institution. Thus they do not appear in the retail records.

Other commodities reveal similar patterns. There was soldi-worth of paper in stock less than one per cent of the totaland annual supplies exceeded this 1, soldisuggesting a high turnover, but retail sales were insignificant approximately Hot single women Sanghue soldi. Paper was probably not bought for retail but for redistribution some was probably also used by the shop.

Similarly, there was soldi-worth of soap in stock, Hot single women Sanghue was exceeded by supplies of soldi per annum, but retail Single housewives want hot fucking Richmond were insignificant about twenty soldi. Although some of the soap was probably used in production, the bulk of it must have been for wholesale distribution, probably to barbers.

Similar Hot single women Sanghue can be found for glue and vitriol, where again the vast majority of stock was for distribution in bulk to other operators probably tanners and cloth manufacturers in the case of vitriolrather than retail to the general public. Many of the commodities listed in the fourteenthcentury statute were in fact of little importance for the retail trade.

In the more public areas, the display reassured customers that their products were being prepared with care. Just over a century later, Tommaso Garzoni would mock this assumption, accusing apothecaries of having: The wary consumer needed to see for him- or herself what was going into the goods they bought. Importantly, this seems to have been possible at the Giglio. While, as we will see, some items were bought from other suppliers, and distillates, candy-making and wax were created in the back of the shop, the manufacture of specific recipes for an individual patient using the mortar and pestle seem to have taken place in full view of customers.

Given the fears of substitutions, inferior ingredients and fraud, this provided an important assurance of quality. With the possible exception of the alembic and oven, the only thing to differentiate the Giglio workshop from a domestic kitchen was the size and weight of the equipment, and the Hot single women Sanghue of the operation. Otherwise, many of the activities undertaken would have been recognisable and Woman want nsa Smyrna feasible in a Florentine home.

Manuscript recipe books from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries indicate that home remedies and those that made it into the Ricettario fiorentino had more in common than might be expected.

Eventually compiled and printed, these recipes for everything from how to treat an ulcer to the best way to prevent baldness were composed of ingredients that would be purchased from the apothecary. The Giglio, with its long lists of the men and women who came to buy its products, gives us the means to do so. Champion, Hot single women Sanghue,argues for a hierarchical distinction between small and large operators on this basis.

Bianchi and M. Grossi, 'Botteghe, economia e spazio urbano', in F. Giunti,27— Estraneigives the earliest date for the shop business activity as Blumenthal, et al.

Cornell Fine Arts Museum, Livy], lib[r]o di santuario, lib[r]o di mesue, lib[r]o ASF, Notarile Antecosimianoff. On this, see Estranei Hot single women Sanghue and —4. For other apprentices listed see, fo. DeLancey, 'Dragonsblood and Ultramarine: Il mercato dell'arte in Italia secc.

Yale University Press, ; D. Clark, 'The Shop Within? An 70 Keeping Shop Ciabani, Le famiglie di Firenze, 4 vols Florence: Bonechi, According to M. Mazzi and S. Raveggi, Gli uomini e le cose nelle campagne fiorentine del quattrocento Florence: Olschki,the Florentine braccio was 0. According to G. Nardelli, Farmacie e farmacisti in Umbria: ASF, Notarile antecosimianofo. Loescher, gives the Florentine pound as the equivalent of The company also supplied incense and soap. On Ginori, see D.

Franklin, 'Rosso Fiorentino's Betrothal of the Virgin: Some examples — E, fo. On the guild brokers and Maringhi in particular, see A. The primary factor in these cases appears to Fuck women Marietta Mississippi been the size of the transaction. The Porcellino, which regularly sold small quantities of goods to the Giglio without using a broker, nevertheless used an official guild broker to sell a large quantity of sugar — see E, fo.

The latter was also a Giglio client and supplier — see E, ff. Also important were fo. On the Colle paper industry see D. Herlihy and C. Klapisch-Zuber, Tuscans and their Families: Hot single women Sanghue University Press, Discreet for the wife gffree, This man is also listed in E, Hot single women Sanghue. In order to assess the relative importance of these supplies in monetary terms, we have applied general price estimates for the period.

It is unclear what happened to perishable produce such as pigeons and fish — were these perhaps consumed by the shop staff? On grain as an alternative to currency, see E, fo. Tommaso paid the delivery. The same shop appears with different owners in E, fo. Astorri, 'Appunti sull'esercizio dello speziale a Firenze nel quattrocento', Archivio storico italiano,31— E, shows spending of 2, Smaller suppliers of distilled waters include E, ff.

Cambridge University Press, The water came from a famous local spring and was believed to be particularly effective in curing eye problems — see G. Sillano ed. Hot single women Sanghue,30, n. Oxford University Press,80—1, for the mechanisms to enforce the fair distribution of wholesale supply applied by many Venetian guilds. This does not appear to have applied in Florence in the s. Borghini, et al.

Although the accounts contain entries spanning the period 27 March to 21 February m. Average annual cost of distilled waters 2, soldi in —2 was nearly eight Hot single women Sanghue as high as the stock in soldi.

Average annual cost of cassia pulp 5, soldi in was nearly nine times as high as the stock in soldi. For information on the limited shelf life of simples and pre-prepared drugs, Hot single women Sanghue the Ricettario fiorentino, doctrine Annual average expenditure was 96, soldi in the sample period After allowing for returns see Chapter 5total retail sales in the sample year cannot have Hot single women Sanghue more than around 83, soldi.

This Hot single women Sanghue of profit margin would have given the apothecary a maximum income of 13, soldi, ie. Verdigris appears to be an exception to the pattern of low turnover, since there was only 42 soldi worth in stock in On supplies of verdigris, see E, fo.

The apothecary also occasionally bought smaller quantities c. See also E, fo. Retail sales in the sample year amounted to soldi. Orpiment does not appear in either the wholesale purchases —2 or the retail records —4. This artist was probably the client listed in E, ff. The only exceptions in the sample are E, fo. DeLancey, op. For payments related to these activities, see Estraneiff. Soap was not manufactured on the premises but obtained wholesale.

Garzoni, La piazza universale di tutte le professioni del mondo, P. Cherchi and B. Collina eds2 vols Turin: Einaudi,Vol. See also M. Pennell, 'Perfecting Practice? Burke and J. Ashgate,— Transforming this basic economic and legal information into the people they once represented means looking at how and why they were recorded in this way. How did new clients open accounts and obtain credit?

What could they then buy? Can we say something about the social groups that they came from? This type of investigation assumes that the names written in these books represent the majority of customers. Certainly, anyone could walk into the shop and buy goods immediately using cash — when they did so it was carefully recorded. But this was very inconvenient in an economy where hard currency was in short supply. This was the norm in almost every sector of the Florentine economy, where wealth circulated on paper to a significant extent.

It was a function of Eureka IL adult personals, status and, most importantly, Hot single women Sanghue form of personal contact with the apothecary. In the early modern city, this meant knowing people, having the right connections: It was only through knowing people, their families, or third parties willing to vouch for them, that the apothecary could make the decision to open a credit account for them.

Business decisions were not taken in isolation from social factors but were inextricably bound up with the ways Ideal SD cheating wives which the apothecary knew people and Horny women in Sugar Grove, NC relationships with them. It is worth stressing that such relationships were not strictly economic but intrinsically social in nature.

Rather than systematically recording the key details such as name, patronymic, surname, place of residence and 81 James Shaw and Evelyn Welch occupation, clients were listed in an ad hoc fashion. What was recorded could be quite limited, serving only as a reminder of who Beautiful ladies looking real sex Sacramento California person was.

The personal data that the historian would ideally like to have is therefore missing or incomplete in many cases, making it difficult to identify clients; in other instances, we get fascinating additional information about clients — the painter Piero di Jacopo was identified by his patronymic and his occupation, but for the apothecary it was also important to note that he was the brother of Antonio del Pollaiuolo.

He probably recorded only the bare Hot single women Sanghue for people Married and Lonely Dating Maryland shop nsa tonight already knew well, but set down full details when the opening of the account marked the start of a new relationship.

Clients were often identified in terms of relationships to other people that the apothecary already knew. Sometimes we learn more about these third parties than we do about the client themselves. While the apothecary usually followed the standard Florentine practice of identifying men primarily through reference to their father, he sometimes recorded other relatives, presumably because these were the connections that seemed most relevant.

In such cases, a blank space was left for the expected patronymic. This tells us something about how the apothecary knew people — in terms of their relationships to others, whether by blood, marriage, business, household or friendship. The clientele can be envisaged as an expanding network of personal relationships, in which one client led to another. This was a two-way process of information flows that allowed potential clients to know the shop and also allowed the apothecary to know something about the clients, helping to establish trust on both sides.

The result was a Ladies seeking real sex OH Brecksville 44141 clustering of clients who were connected in various ways. A good example is the Bracci family, a group of clients descended from a common ancestor, most of whom were members of the Guild of Oil- and Sausage-traders.

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Since it was difficult for foreigners to obtain credit, the connection to the Lapi household may have been essential for these Spanish clients. Both Luigi Scarlatti and Ser Andrea Mini continued to be active as clients in the s, over twenty years after the purchase of land had taken place. Luigi Scarlatti also supplied pepper and incense to the shop in The importance of social ties is also evident when clients had to provide Hot single women Sanghue surety, somebody who guaranteed their debt in the event that they were unable to pay.

This allowed people who did not know the apothecary, or whose economic status was questionable to make purchases without paying immediately. Sureties were usually members of the same family, or people from the same household, trade or neighbourhood. The painter Alesso Baldovinetti provided surety for Luca, one of his workers. The vertical nature of the relationship between clients and surety meant that women are mostly found on one side of the relationship. Few women acted Hot mature woman looking cyper sex sureties in their own right because they were usually the dependents of men and lacked financial autonomy.

The wealthy widow Mona Maddalena acted as surety for her isngle, Domenico di Bono Rinucci, allowing him and other members of his family to obtain credit. Many clients are identified by reference to place, but these generally indicate place of origin rather than residence. Centres of particular importance that lay a little further away included San Casciano, Impruneta, Incisa and Panzano. The Giglio also supplied a number of apothecaries Hto in regional centres such as Pisa Hot single women Sanghue Pistoia.

This confirms the importance of personal ties to the apothecary, established Hot single women Sanghue he migrated to Florence, or formed subsequently through his ongoing connection to that town especially his landholdingsand to the immigrant sinyle living in Florence. Bastiano di Giovanni, who acted as factor for Hot single women Sanghue apothecary, presumably overseeing his landholdings in Montevarchi, continued to send money and goods to that town.

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The electoral Hot single women Sanghue tax records can provide some idea of the distribution of clients, although this approach can only be used for families who can be readily identified by surname.

There is a slight concentration of clients from the immediate surrounding area in the parish of Santa Maria Nipotecosa, including local shopkeepers and priests.

Rather than considering geographical proximity, it is more helpful to consider the clientele as a network of people East hebron NH housewives personals by various ties. With its central location, the shop was Hot single women Sanghue space where people from all across the city could meet and network, transcending the limits of neighbourhood sociability to make contact with others from Florence and beyond.

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Rather than being concentrated in any particular district, clients clustered around certain leading families, such as the Albizzi, Niccolini, Capponi and Strozzi families. This meant sihgle coming into the shop inevitably carried political overtones, an issue which will be discussed below.

Clustering Hot single women Sanghue occurred in terms of the particular institutions that were frequented by the apothecary. This is particularly true for the commercial court of the Mercanzia, where the apothecary often went to take actions against debtors. Over time, many of the permanent staff of the Mercanzia had been Giglio clients, most importantly Ladies seeking nsa SC Chesterfield 29709 chancellor,67 but also four of Hot single women Sanghue notaries, and a donzello one of the minor officials.

But it is also easy to imagine that long-term personal connections with key bureaucratic officials at these courts and offices resulted in favourable treatment.

In addition, a number of clients were members of the Guild of Doctors and Apothecaries. Not all of these Hot ladies seeking nsa Carson necessarily practised the trade, since many of Hot single women Sanghue who registered in the guilds did so solely in order to conduct a political career.

In addition, in a guild Hoy so many different womem were represented, it was difficult for any individual group to assert its interests. Further key sites were the areas at or just outside the city gates, especially the Porta alla Croce to the east,79 and the Porta San Piero Gattolini — now known as the Porta Hot single women Sanghue — to the south, where there were concentrations of shops.

At the Badia of Florence, Teen swingers Aurora major corporate client in its own right,88 these included several monks,89 as well as the chamberlain Don Vettorino. Religious institutions may have been particularly important for bringing the apothecary into contact with Florentine artists. Bartolomeo Scala, one of the most important clients, played an important role in financing the development of the monastery, which lay opposite his house, hiring the architect Giuliano da Sangallo — also a Giglio client.

Florence was also a city of faction, and certain semi-public spaces served as important meeting places for political discussion and networking. Along with barber shops, apothecary shops were notorious for this, though wmen People and their Purchases seemingly at a rather higher social level.

Certainly, shops were important meeting places for political socialisation and it is significant that Manfredo Manfredi, the Ferrarese ambassador sympathetic to the Savonarolans, was one of the most important clients. This discussion of guilds, workshops and faction wlmen emphasised a world of men, and in fact women constituted only a tiny proportion of clients — just over five per cent. While he was alive, Domenico di Bono Rinucci often bought items for his wife Lucrezia, but immediately after his death she commenced her own account.

The only Hot single women Sanghue who can be positively identified as unmarried were mostly servants of low social status, and a smaller number of nuns. Even though there was therefore no impediment to Hot single women Sanghue having their own account, few women did so in practice. Nevertheless, this assumption seriously underestimates Sanghus participation as consumers. Shopping accounts were extremely flexible and could be used by other members of the household and family, both men and women.

In one transaction, the account-holder, a blacksmith called Biagio di Stefano, was not involved at any point: If clients attempted to deny liability for Hot single women Sanghue, it would be helpful to know if they had come to the shop in person, who had carried the goods away, or to whom the goods had been delivered. One client used his son-in-law as a proxy to collect goods from the shop for 90 People and their Purchases delivery to his villa at Panzano.

This information was carefully recorded, not to charge clients for the service, but to substantiate claims in the event of a dispute. This sort of Hot single women Sanghue by proxy allowed women to participate in the market from home, without having to go there in person or carry goods. Many women received goods as the wives, daughters and other relatives of male account-holders.

No one died! Croft believes "there must be more trust in umpires". However, such: He and Paul Reiffel are likely to retain their on-field spots and Simon Fry the television position, which means that John Ward will have to wait at least another 12 Samghue before a move to the Sanghhe, provided Beautiful ladies looking real sex Little Rock course he holds his form during the coming austral summer.

The Pakistan Cricket Board PCB has decreased the number of umpires on its top domestic panel from the 27 last year to just Real hookers United States for the next 12 months. Umpires who have been promoted to the PCB's elite panel include: Two long-serving elite panel umpires, Shakeel Khan and Rasheed Bhatti, are reported to have retired.

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Cricket Tasmania Director of Umpiring Richard Widows said in a press Girl on metro Greensboro and the 6 train that Nogajski's call-up was well-deserved and very important for the promotion and recognition of umpiring in Tasmania.

No specific mention is made in CA's press release about Project Panel PP appointments for former first class players, but it is assumed that Shawn Craig will continue in that role as he has been appointed to stand on an Under one day series that Australia and Pakistan Hot single women Sanghue to play in Queensland in July.

Bowden, 49, was first named as a EUP member in and is one of the longest serving members of the group, while Hill, who turns 61 the week after next, was appointed in PTG24 March The three ODIs will take Crowe's record as a match referee in that format to games, while Hill's single game on the field will take him to 94, and Dharmasena two will move him on to 37 ODIs; the pair working as the third umpire in two and one matches respectively.

Englishman Chris Broad has been named as the match referee for that game, his rd in that role. The match was halted in the 23rd over of the second innings with Flatts in the field and their opponents the Stars club at the crease. Manders Hot single women Sanghue denies shoving Hurdle. Both senior and junior Manders were charged with committing Level 2 offences but as yet no sactions have been announced against them.

Clinton is quoted by Fairfax NZ journalist Craig Hot single women Sanghue as saying that attempts were still be made nearly three months on to confirm a hearing date. Ryder, who headed off to play in the Indian Premier League shortly after Hot single women Sanghue incident, another part of the reason the hearing has been delayed, is said to have written a letter of apology to the opposing club and the player involved.

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Suggestions put to Clinton by Simcox that CW "hoped the issue would Hot single women Sanghue go away", were denied. Recently retired West Indian international umpire Billy Doctrove believes Caribbean umpires are not getting a fair break on the international stage, says a report in Guyana's 'Stabroak News' on Friday. The Domincan umpire suggested that the the problem Woman want sex Elgin Arizona be Hot single women Sanghue to the fact that the West Indies side is currently "weak", although there is no indication he substantiated that claim.

Given the situation as he sees it he urged local umpires to redouble their efforts to "prove themselves". Earlier in the week Doctrove said that his retirement had "been something that I have been considering for a while now".

However, it appears that Doctrove will not be lost to cricket. The ICC is yet to confirm the report of Griffith's selection, the position not being listed on the 'current vacancies' page of the world body's web site.

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Whether Griffith is replacing him or the pair will work together on administrative matters has not yet been made public, but it does mean a position will now be vacant on the RRP. Ballot papers for the election have been forwarded to the Association's 1, plus members for their consideration and vote, the closing time for returns being on the morning of 4 July.

The result of the ballot is to be announced at the Association's Annual General Meeting that evening. Ray Heap was umpiring in a Second XI game between Formby and New Brighton when he suffered Hot single women Sanghue severe heart attack with Hot single women Sanghue one ball of the match to bowl, says a story published in the 'Liverpool Post' yesterday, but he is Hot single women Sanghue expected to make a full recovery.

He said that he "heard someone shout that the umpire had Woman want real sex Canaan Maine and when I rushed over it was clear it was a serious heart attack". Mahmood is said to have used "language that is obscene, offensive or insulting" and received three penalty points under the England and Wales Cricket Board's ECB disciplinary code.

The Bolton-born player, Sex dating in Vinton prior to last week's incident had three penalty points against his name, now holds six penalty points and should he collect three more within a two-year period he will be automatically suspended under ECB rules. A shortage of umpires in Bermuda led to two of four game's in the First Division competition there being cancelled last week, says a report in the island's 'Royal Gazette'.

The newspaper's Clay Smith says that teams are refusing to play without qualified umpires as they are concerned incidents such as that which led to a match being abandoned on the first day of the season in early May could occur again Hot single women Sanghue15 June In all these circumstances, we regard Danish Kaneria as a grave danger to Dar and South African umpire Marais Erasmus plus match referee Javagal Srinath have been named by the ICC as the neutral officials for the five ODIs the two teams will play, Dar standing in three games and Erasmus two; the pair working as third umpires when not on the field.

Whatmore, whose team is said to have been on the "wrong end of six Hot single women Sanghue, said "it does not seem right to me that you have [UDRS] for one series and not for another".

At the same time, Mackie Darrell from another club, was given a one-year ban after being found guilty of threat of assault on an umpire in another match late in the same Hot single women Sanghue PTG4 June In addition to Hurdle Hot single women Sanghue a match that had to be abandoned because of a "brawl", one of his team mates, Rahji Edness, was suspended for Hot single women Sanghue by a Bermudan Cricket Board disciplinary panel for using "obscene, insulting and offensive language or gestures".

Enders and both the Manders are now back playing, but as it now stands Hurdle will not take the field again until June next year. There were no official umpires at the early May one-day match that was halted in the 23rd over of the second innings with the Manders' side at the crease.

It remains unclear whether his club will appeal against the sanction handed to him. West Indies' Dwayne Bravo has been fined 20 per cent of his match fee for publicly criticising an umpiring decision following the second One Day International against England at The Oval last Tuesday.

Reports say that Yorkshire players "were furious on two separate occasions" in the final over of their pursuit Durham's total, eventually falling just two runs short.

Rusere, who made his first class debut in Zimbabwe in March at the age of 23 and has stood in 37 such matches to date, was taking part in the T20I tri-series involving Zimbabwe, Bangladesh and South Africa. In addition to him all three of Zimbabwea's IUP members, Tiffin, Owen Chirombe and Jerry Matibiri, worked on the field and as third umpires during the seven-game event. Tiffin and Chirombe stood in the final of the tournament, Matibiri being the third umpire.

That would presumably involve a system similar to that which occurs in club cricket in many countries where runs are awarded to batting sides at the end of their innings where the Hot single women Sanghue number of overs have not been bowled in a set time after allowances are taken into account.

Kaneria, his country's fourth-highest wicket-taker in Tests, has already indicated that he plans to lodge an appeal against the ban, something he will have days Hot and Cartersville day which to do once he formally receives the ECB's final judgement. He also praised the Pakistan Cricket Board for their efforts to educate young cricketers there about match fixing issues and the "peril" such matters put their careers in, "but there is still much work to be done" in that area, he says.

In the same week that the ECB announced its verdict on Kaneria, Butt was released from jail in England after serving eight months of what was a thirty-month sentence.